At the very least, then, artistic resistance could question the validity of a dominant ideology as part of a struggle toward the construction of a truth, one that includes the worldview of the artist and those with whom he or she identifies. Venezuela cut off diplomatic relations with Uruguay and Quinteros was never seen again Martínez 73—75. Before the dictatorship, more than two people could gather in public without fear of attracting the police. Who is the good soldier? Meanwhile, the middle class enjoyed lower levels of inflation and greater availability of consumer goods, which in turn reinforced their support of dictatorship. The parts of the body most sensitive to painthe eyes, the ngernails, the toenails, the nipples, the genitals, the anuswere likely to be assaulted. My thanks to historian Steve J. An even more sinister abuse than the mimetic desire condemned by the play is memory in the service of blackmail, an abuse that recalls the tactics of the Tupamaro guerrillas.
When a statue of Dom Pedro I, the Portuguese emperor, was erected in 1824 on the spot where Tiradentes was hanged in Rio de Janeiro, the republicans protested to no avail. Ella ahora se queda en casa, con mi nieto, y yo voy por todos lados, preguntando. During the scenes with Paco, many spectators exchanged shocked glances Mirza personal interview. In far too many ways to recount here, my parents Marta and William, my sisters Maria Teresa and Laura, my niece Anna Maria, my nephews Robert Thomas and Hunter, and my Vctor helped keep me sane. Before the dictatorship, more than two people could gather in public without fear of attracting the police. The farcical tone also helps conceal the dramas call for a middle road between open rebellion, which it depicts as too dangerous Pacos mutilation , and willing conformity, as epitomized by Alfonso and Clotildes unattractive fate: the complete loss of memory and consequent disintegration of identity.
She must deny her husband and mother-in-law their futures in order to secure her own. In Alfonso y Clotilde and Palabras, memory provides an alternative reality to a present evil and thus helps establish an alternative ethical 52 Memory, Allegory, and Testimony in South American Theater system. Includes bibliographical references and index. The information was invaluable because it allowed one to gauge the risk that one might be imprisoned, a fate that almost always included torture during the earliest stage of detention Weschler 125. I often point out the similarities between the language, images, Introduction 13 and ideas that were being espoused by forces of resistance inside and outside the theater in a particular country at a particular time. The citizenry responded with at least overt compliance with the new rule of law and with a tendency to retreat into a private realm that required a willed forgetfulness of external reality.
Chela resorts to using memory in the service of imitation: She steals food, clothing, and household goods from her employers in order to survive and attempt to live as they do. In Calabar, to look at this important historical allegory in a bit more detail, the eponymous protagonist, Domingos Fernandes Calabar, does not even appear on stage: The action revolves around what the other characters make of his decision to switch alliances from the Portuguese to the Dutch. Several Uruguayan theater practitioners recalled that even after they left Uruguay to live abroad, they continued to lower their voices to a whisper in restaurants and cafés, sometimes to the amusement of their foreign companions, who would remind them that there was no longer any danger in speaking up Pirelli, Duffau, Jones personal Carlos Manuel Varela and the Duty to Remember 25 interviews. Yet unlike the two full-length dramas, Lua is not allegorical: It plainly states what the other two works only insinuate, that armed struggle is indispensable to leftist revolution and that Guevara is the model of a revolutionary hero. During those ve years, 19731978, the military harshly repressed any artistic activity deemed potentially subversive, including most theater. From a more secular perspective, Arena positions Bolívar as the founding father of a similar lineage.
To help spectators keep track of who was who, the actors relied on signature gestures, such as straight arm with clenched fist for Zumbi, a gesture that evokes both class and race with its echoes of both the Socialist salute of the Spanish Civil War and the black power salute of the 1960s. Marcelo Marchese, owner of the fabulous Babilonia used bookstore, 1591 Tristán Narvaja in Montevideo, tracked down all sorts of useful materials for me and proffered his own memories of dictatorship. Nada más que dos fechas. Teatro de Arenas re-creations and reappropriations of three historical guresZumbi, Tiradentes, and Bolvarsubvert some elements of military ideology while reinforcing others, particularly those concerning race and gender. And although Alfonso y Clotilde depicted both destructive and constructive uses of memory, for the characters in Cuentos memory almost always takes the perverted form of nostalgia. Es una larga historia que algún día te contaré. La torturaron y después la cargaron con otros en un camión.
The play opened on May 14, 1980 at the Teatro del Centro, a Montevideo theater-in-the-round that seats about 200 people. In fact, much Latin American theater exposes a dynamic that all too often governs the majority: on the one hand, a human propensity for casual cruelty, and on the other, a pathetic tendency toward hopeful subservience to authority. After leaving the theater, subsequent experiences will in turn be fi ltered through the lens of the fused old-and-new memories. The working-class characters have more ambition, more energy, and are more fertile than their social superiors. Zumbi opened on May 1, the Socialist Labor Day, of 1965 and ran for eighteen months. Acknowledgments The playwrights I write about here were also my teachers, guiding me through a labyrinth of material, introducing me to other theater people in their countries, and responding to my endless questions with patience and kindness. Forewarned of their plans by Sivério, however, the governor cancels the tax and has all the conspirators arrested.
I felt like doing something. But I also felt that that was very dangerous, that even though the dictatorship was supposedly ending, who knew if the new government would last? As the dictatorship dug in, the Left nevertheless continued to try to claim Tiradentes for itself. Unidentified actors in a cross-dressed production of Las Brutas in Sweden in 1987. Among the things that may be gained, when theater effectively employs memory as a form of resistance to political repression, are a sense of oneself as a participant in a struggle, a greater feeling of solidarity with others involved in the same struggle, and if not the need or ability to change the world, at least a greater awareness of ones inability to change it. She brings him a drawing of birds. Gambaros work, although supercially similar to postmodernist pastiche, dismembers plots, characters, and language not to create an emotionless surface but to suspend reminders of the nations troubled history and equally troubled present within the same allegorical web, a web reminiscent of abstract paintings such as Picassos Guernica, which while not easily interpretable are nevertheless lled with passionate protest.
In fact, as of this writing, nominally leftist leaders are in power in all four Southern Cone countries: Tabar Vsquez in Uruguay; Luiz Incio Lula da Silva in Brazil; Nstor Kirchner in Argentina; and Michelle Bachelet in Chile. Under the conditions of military rule, for an unarmed public in 1983, memory was the only possible revenge. In the end, all the characters except Lucas acquire a ghostly dimension similar to the Pirandellian presence of ctional characters in any writers life. Comandante, será necessária luta armada?. Their Saturday night sex, at rst recalled as a great pleasure, turns out to have been empty and routine, at least for Clotilde 169. Theatre and Performance in Digital Culture From Simulation to Embeddedness Matthew Causey 6.
The Queen clubs him on the head, exclaiming, Para tu memoria! Alfonsos musing might have prodded the spectator to remember a time before the dictatorship when there was nothing to shelter people from: Labor organizing was not prohibited. Emila succeeds in discovering a few details about the death her son Hugo; Delia cannot even nd documentation that her daughter Cecilia was detained, and Isabel seeks in vain for news of her husband Diego, Martns father. Ellas dijeron que toda Dinamarka senta su dolor. Performance and Cognition Theatre Studies after the Cognitive Turn Edited by Bruce McConachie and F. His private life is entirely depicted through the character of his wife, Barbara, who cheats on him with the man who in turn betrays Calabar to the Portuguese authorities who execute him. Alternative aesthetic strategies often distinguish the truly resistant theatrical work from a propaganda pamphlet or a political demonstration.