Mainstream psychology is therefore located in the discourse of science, a discourse which talks of the discovery of general laws through the use of scientific method, an objective stance, and a set of universal rules for attaining true knowledge of the human world. Schools and increasingly other educational sites act as a field of surveillance and regulation. Le Doeuff 1977 argues that in philosophy the place of desire is marked by the implicit recognition of lack, that there is always something which yet remains to be known. Featherstone 1991:5 In other words, in postmodernity, sensibilities are attuned to the pleasure of constant and new experiencing, a desire which is its own end, unsubordinated to and therefore unconstrained by a hierarchy of foundational and transcendental reason and values. Their presence, therefore, becomes normal, their absence pathological.
Hekman 1990 , for example, argues that the rationalism at the basis of Western thought is specifically masculine. On the contrary, we would see it as the very basis of resistance; indeed, we would want to argue for the ludic as a form of resistance and for resistance needing to always deploy the ludic the better to do its work. What Lacan points to is the essentially paradoxical and ambivalent position which subjects find themselves in as human beings. This is probably what Frosh has in mind when he says: The purpose of a psychological description is to offer in terms which are as objective as possible an account of the mental or interpersonal processes which are operating in a person at the level of those processes rather than at the level of the subjective intent of the person concerned. Disciplines, in telling the truth about the world, occupy a foundational place in this scenario. The response to these challenges to competence-based qualifications in relation to their narrowness and applicability has been to extend their range rather than reconsider the grounds on which they have been formulated.
He argues, first, that truth is in the field of speech—you tell the truth. Thus, to view the removal of corporal punishment from schooling as simply the creation of a more humane environment does not do justice to the complexity of the situation. Examining the Case: Competences and Management 6. His most recent book is with Michael A. But what does it mean to be a human science? Educational practice, on the other hand, does have many features that could properly be called postmodern even though educational practitioners might be reluctant to recognise this. U prikazu razvoja škole ističe se njezina inertnost na dinamične i radikalne promjene koje donosi suvremenost jer škola funkcionira prema jednakim hijerarhijskim načelima oblikovanima u spartansko vrijeme, dok se u organizacijskoj dimenziji nije bitno promijenila još od Jana Amosa Komenskog.
In this book, the authors explore and clarify the nature of postmodernism and provide a detailed introduction to key writers in the field such as Lacan Derrida Foucault Lyotard They examine the impact of this thinking upon contemporary theory and practice of education, concentrating particularly upon how postmodernist ideas challenge existing concepts, structures and hierarchies. Indeed, for educators, this has important consequences. We witness a questioning of the scientific attitude, a denial of modernist scientificity with its emphasis on the universal efficacy of scientific method and of the stance of objectivity and value-neutrality in the making of knowledge-claims. Burbules is Grayce Wicall Gauthier Professor in the Department of Educational Policy Studies at the University of Illinois. Part of the problem is that Foucault himself resists categorisation.
This approach offers a number of possibilities. Table of Contents Introduction 1. Certainly, it is not a term that designates a systematic theory or comprehensive philosophy. Speaking 'Truthfully': Science, Psychology and Subjectivity 3. All these positions exemplify the nature of postmodernism as a contested terrain, marking our uncertainty as to how we should properly characterise the times we live in. The problem lies in the dualism since, as we have seen, every dualism implies a hierarchy as its inevitable consequence. It was at this point that the interests of feminism and postmodernism began to converge more explicitly.
Speaking 'Truthfully': Science, Psychology and Subjectivity 3. What we stand for can only emerge through an engagement with the text, and readers will quite possibly understand this differently and in a more complex way than we do. For instance, a lawyer needs a knowledge of legal case history to be able prosecute or defend their case successfully. By privileging observation and experiential phenomena science locates itself in the Imaginary order, the order of projections and spectral identifications, of imagined totalisations and illusory wholeness. Rather, it is to use a loose umbrella term under whose broad cover can be encompassed at one and the same time a condition, a set of practices, a cultural discourse, an attitude and a mode of analysis. Thus, even within educational practices based on meeting individual needs, we have to be aware of the power-knowledge formations which construct the truth of the individual as a particular form of subject Edwards 1991. Lacan speaks both with the voice of consciousness and the unconscious.
This represented a major shift away from the standpoint of liberal humanism and Marxism which had influenced the evolution of feminist concerns in the 1960s and 1970s. Rather than ranging panoramically over the corpus of their work, we have concentrated with each of them on a number of key ideas and positions which, in our view, are central to understanding the implications of their work for education. Foucault 1980:52 Power and knowledge, rather than being counterposed are inseparable, immanent in one another, each a condition for the possibility of the other. Fascinating accounts brimming with desire and tender mercies--as much as with oppression and exploitation--show that the indentured were as much agents as they were victims and silent witnesses, painting a clear portrait of both cooperation and discord between Indians and Africans. Who is cast as the Other, to be dominated and excluded? This may appear to be already recognised in certain progressive educational stances. At the same time, however, because of the unconscious desire for recognition and mastery, subjects are impelled into continually searching for it.
Education is very much the dutiful child of the Enlightenment and, as such, tends to uncritically accept a set of assumptions deriving from Enlightenment thought. In this way, it is implicated in modern science with the pitfalls and exclusions which that entails. Inscription on front loose end paper. Science is driven by the desire for mastery, the desire to attain full and complete knowledge, to be not-lacking or complete through the elimination of otherness. The task, therefore, was not only to challenge the dualities around which Western thought had been organised but to develop alternative ways of thinking about gender relations without dualities. In some ways, it is easier to discern what it is against than what it is for.
To pursue revolutionary change is merely to institute a more overt and clear-cut discourse of mastery. Razlozi za to u njezinim su potencijalima, koji se iskazuju u povezanosti sa zajednicom, u organizaciji nastave i drugih oblika rada. Bauman 1992, Best and Kellner 1991, Boyne and Rattansi 1990, Connor 1989, Crook et al. Psychology in all its variations is both implied by and implicated in educational knowledge and practice. His work emphasises the constitution of subjects and subjective experience through discursive practices, but he differs from Derrida and Lacan in that he is concerned to go beyond the role of language and textuality into an explicit consideration of the nature and role of power see Barrett 1991, Couzens Hoy 1988. Thus in postmodernism there is a recognition that whilst representation is problematic, it is always inescapably implicated with power and therefore cannot be abolished by avant-gardist acts of will.
Ignorance, rather, is that which is repressed and thus that which always escapes the totalising drive of masterful knowledge. Alongside these developments have come cultural changes such as secularisation, the emphasis on self and personal growth, and the growing importance of electronic media and information technology. A discourse is therefore exclusionary. This strangeness alerts us to the possibility that there is something questionable about the notion of Archimedean points as the condition of all legitimate knowledge. As a consequence, the authors point out that universities increasingly become targets of social reform to be brought into greater alignment with the interests of global capital. It is through this positioning by a network of multiple determinations that discourses secure the affective and effective management of the people. For Lacan, intersubjectivity is rooted in an ambivalent dialectic of recognition and misrecognition.