There are many other Wnal particles in Mandarin Chinese, and many resources other than Wnal particles, which make up the cultural repertoire of devices used to accomplish various kinds of interactional work, and whose practices await compelling analytic speciWcation. In addition to the aVective stances embodied in syntactic constructions such as questions or repairs, many studies have documented how prosody can also be used in conjunction with nonlexicalized response tokens or emotional cries of various sorts to convey aVective stance. This theme is reXected most prominently in Chapters 3 and 4, in which two seemingly diVerent usages of Wnal ou i. One upshot of this feature is that no order of detail in interaction can be dismissed, a priori, as irrelevant; and conversely, no analytic distinctions or social characterizations of participants e. Wu has also been actively involved in projects related to K-12 Chinese language education and teacher-training in the San Diego area. Goodwin 2000; Gardner 2001; Sorjonen 2001; M.
Similar observations about the impact of sequential positioning on response tokens have been noted in Gardner 2001 and Sorjonen 2001 as well. She suggests that such interpretations rest instead on the actions performed by the questions, their sequential positioning, and the knowledge states of the participants. Li, Wei, Zhu Hua, and Li Yue. Heritage, John and Raymond, GeoVrey 2003. See Cumming and Ono 1997 and Ford, Fox and Thompson 2002:4B7 for a review of discourse-functional linguistics.
Marked ou is also commonly found in a turn in which the current speaker disagrees with the prior speaker. Traditional treatment of Mandarin Wnal particles, for example, has focused mainly on the analysis of sentences in isolation, or on the analysis of hypothetical conversational situations or written texts e. This excerpt is taken from a larger story-telling sequence, in which L is describing her mother-inlaw C an allegedly uneducated and superstitious housewife living in a suburban area. This example is taken from the same telephone conversation as 10 between two college friends who now live in diVerent cities in the United States and who have not talked to each other for a while. Excerpt 16 is a made-up example: While this kind of construction C a disjunctive question suYxed with a Wnal a C is perfectly grammatical and plausible in Mandarin Chinese, I cannot locate any examples of this kind in the present database.
There is, however, another set of cases in which it is not the sheer ignorance of supposedly known-in-common information that is at issue. It is interesting to note that while this ou-suYxed utterance is double-edged, i. Excerpt 33 is a case in point. In a similar count of Wnal particles in an informal Mandarin conversation, Chappell 1991:40 found that these Wnal particles occurred about every 6 seconds. Although the stance adverbials are grouped into categories on the basis of their literal meanings, the clusters are interpreted in terms of the discourse functions of the adverbials; in several cases, our analysis shows that the discourse functions of stance adverbials differ considerably from the functions suggested by their literal meanings.
I was about Wfty kilograms. This can be supported by the fact that both recipients upgrade the epistemic strength of their prior assertions in responding to these a-formulated questions. More speciWcally, I will demonstrate that the use of marked ou — whether in Wrst position Section 3. Van Dijk Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona David Holdcroft University of Leeds Richard J. In response, W utters a cry of dismay: 45 T-oYcemate, 037 1W: hhhh wandan le. This occurs most commonly when these a tokens are preceded by a third-tone syllable or a fourth-tone syllable.
Huang 1994 examines Mandarin anaphora from the neoGricean pragmatic perspective. This report attracts a counter-assertion from H in line 6, who states that even if S was not skinny, she most likely would not have been fat at all, probably given what she looks like now. T-Copyright: a telephone conversation between two Taiwanese male friends, Lin and Tai, in their early thirties. Raymond argues that the consistent selection of diVerent practices by reporters and anchors can be seen as an embodiment of the complementary stances that anchors and reporters take up toward their role-based identities: that is, relative to the anchors, reporters are cast as authorities who have superior knowledge of, and privileged access to, the events under coverage. One of these inquiries i.
Working for a small company:. This observation thus lends further support to our proposal for the unique role Wnal a plays in disagreement sequences C i. Such a stance display may be related to that of continuing recipientship, or the lack thereof, on the part of the particle user. Table 1 provides a summary of the database analyzed in this study. This process of marking counter-valence is also Final a 223 apparent when Wnal a occurs in the context of informing: In this sequential context, as discussed in Section 4. Indeed, as previous conversation analytic research has shown see, for example, Drew and Heritage 1992 for a review of this topic , a crucial feature of turn design, apart from the selection of the activity to be accomplished, concerns the selection of how an activity is to be realized.
And it is a microanalysis of how Wnal ou and Wnal a Wgure in such a process that this study has aimed to oVer. Li 2000 , reported speech e. Tao, Hongyin and Thompson, Sandra A. Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 37 1 :1—42. She shows that the niin tokens which serve as continuers tend to be produced with a non-falling terminal contour, whereas those used to claim recognition are typically produced with a falling terminal contour or with two peaks.
This question, we can note, does not have an a attached to it. In view of its sequential position, the query C whether it turns out to be a straightforward repair initiator, a predisagreement or a newsmark C is, at the moment of its production, vulnerable to the analysis by its recipient that it is questioning the obvious C something that he or she has just articulated or conveyed. Using a multivariate statistical technique called cluster analysis, texts that are maximally similar in their exploitation of these stance adverbials are grouped into clusters. In Erving GoVman: Exploring the Interaction Order, P. Note, further, that when the response to this question is not immediately forthcoming, L launches line 55 what appears to be a projection of possible blame of U for his hesitations e. Such a treatment may come from the fact that the production of the question is indeed the sequentially relevant next action in its current, local sequential environment, and hence the question being produced is treated by its producer as a sequentially justiWable new utterance C one which is being Final a initiated in its own right.