This paper, which is based on a corpus of contemporary Australian English, investigates the structural and communicative properties of extraposed clause constructions. This paper analyses the syntactic structure of to-infinitive sentences in English, focusing on the grammatical features that may characterize them. Introduction 1 1 Introduction 3 1. It is surprising that John went to London in texts, based on a corpus analysis of 1,701 instances in the British component of the International Corpus of English. Six case studies provide step-by-step illustrations of how the corpus and software can be used to explore real linguistic issues, from simple lexical studies to more complex syntactic topics, such as noun phrase structure, verb transitivity, and voice. She participates in the research program The Diachrony of Complex Predicates in West Germanic, and has published several papers on diachronic syntax. Of these the following are found to have a major impact on the choice of zero that: informality of the text category, type of matrix predicate, and information value of the complement clause.
The data suggest that there is strong pressure in English to avoid sentences with a clause as subject in initial position and a comparatively light matrix predicate in final position. English language -- Old English, ca. It shows that to + infinitive emerged from a reanalysis of the preposition to plus a deverbal nominalization, which spread first to purpose clauses, then to other nonfinite environments. In the second and third types, a particle can be overtly incorporated into the domain of a verb. Later chapters consider Middle English developments. Noun, substantive and adjective 10.
However, the two types of subjects may alternate in certain environments, an inexplicable fact for most existing accounts. Present-participials, which are more highly nominalised, extrapose less freely. The book challenges the traditional reasoning that infinitives must have been nouns in Old English because they inflected for dative case and can follow prepositions. This means that the common discourse properties of fronting and nonextraposition must be linked to their common linear ordering properties, rather than to a common syntactic position. It is obvious that she did it , which has so far received very little attention in the literature. On the basis of a large corpus of naturally occurring data, it is shown that nonextraposition requires that the content of the subject be discourse-old or directly inferrable.
In addition to its theoretical contribution, Infinitives contains a detailed descriptive overview of a range of constructions, primarily from the Germanic languages and will thus not only be of value to generative linguists but will also serve as a general reference source for those interested in the Germanic languages. The resulting typology offers a systematic picture of the intricate ways in which finiteness and control interact in different languages. The author provides a measured evaluation of the evidence that to undergoes a period of degrammaticalization. The paper also highlights the usefulness of simple collexeme analysis in revealing systematic co-selection relationships within the construction. For each of the two informational types a number of specific uses in texts are identified taking into account thematic structure topic-comment and the semantic nature of the matrix predicate. Changes in Middle English 231 9 The rise of to-Infinitival Exceptional Case-Marking 233 9. Such constructions will often be superficially similar to right-dislocated constructions, but are generally distinguishable from these on structural, communicative and prosodie grounds.
In fact, as early as Old English, the to-infinitive was established in most of the environments in which it is found today, and its syntactic behaviour clearly shows that it is already a clause rather than a phrase at this early date. Data from Gothic and Old English show that this function could be encoded by three expressions: the du- or to-infinitive, the du- or to-prepositional phrase, and the subjunctive clause introduced by ei in Gothic and by þæt in Old English. The matrix predicate, which typically expresses an 'objectified epistemic or moral judgement, exhibits a variety of structural patterns. Bettelou Los is Forbes Professor of English Language at the University of Edinburgh. This book describes the historical emergence and spread of the to-infinitive in English. First, I point out different realization possibilities between bare infinitives and to-infinitives by examining infinitival complements to causative verbs. The remaining orders occur less frequently because they reflect fewer of the principles.
The to-infinitive as theme 71 4 Intention 73 4. Contents Acknowledgements vii List of Abbreviations and Symbols ix Part I. Syntactic case and morphological case in the history of English. Contrary to the way it -extraposition is often treated in the literature, it does not represent a uniform functional category whose communicative purpose arises mainly from its status as the stylistically unmarked counterpart of non-extraposition. The system proposed naturally extends to other types of complements, like inflected infinitives and obviative subjunctives. She concludes that the extent to which to gains syntactic freedom in Middle English is due to the fact that speakers began to equate it with the modal verbs and therefore to treat it syntactically as a modal verb.
The author provides a measured evaluation of the evidence that to undergoes a period of degrammaticalization. We classify them into three types: the pure idiom type, the simple combination type, and the hybrid idiom type. The to-infinitive as goal 25 2 The expression of purpose in Old English 27 2. For all three, we propose that V0 contains a domain where both morphological and syntactic rules can apply. Received 15 November 2005 doi:10.
Just as important as the end-positioning of material in extraposition is the initialisation of an expression of the speaker's angle, enabling it to serve as the theme. It concludes that the extent to which to gains syntactic freedom in Middle English is due to the fact that speakers began to equate it with the modal verbs, and therefore to treat it syntactically as a modal verb. The exposition is clear and does not assume an up-to-date knowledge of generative theory. The book challenges the traditional reasoning that infinitives must have been nouns in Old English because they inflected for dative case and can follow prepositions. The paper ends with a discussion of the syntactic position of nonextraposed sentential subjects and concludes that it cannot be the same as that of fronted sentential complements. Dr Los shows that, even as early as Old English, the to-infinitive was established in most of the environments in which it is found today.
This view of anticipatory it, which allows for both anaphoric and cataphoric reference, can account for all informational types of it-extraposition as well as it-extraposition with complement omission, and provides a possible explanation for cases of it-omission. Dominant among these is the 'Subject~Predicator~Predicative Complement' pattern, with the complement most commonly realised as an adjectival phrase. It has been claimed in the literature that the bare infinitive could also express purpose in Old English, but a closer look at the data shows that these infinitives occur after verbs of motion and. Dr Los shows that, even as early as Old English, the to-infinitive was established in most of the environments in which it is found today. This book describes the historical emergence and spread of the to-infinitive in English. It shows that to + infinitive emerged from a reanalysis of the preposition to plus a deverbal nominalization, which spread first to purpose clauses, then to other nonfinite environments. This indicates that they have undergone a change from the structure headed by a lexical category to the structure headed by Pred, which is shown to have been completed during the eighteenth century.
The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the the rise of the to infinitive los bettelou gets a brief glance, maybe a once over, but it often tends to get discarded or lost with the original packaging. She argues that its spread was largely due to competition with subjunctive that-clauses, which it gradually replaced. Exploring Natural Language is a comprehensive guide to both corpus and software. In fact, as early as Old English, the to-infinitive was established in most of the environments in which it is found today, and its syntactic behaviour clea. If there are no grammatical factors impeding extraposition such as a matrix predicate containing a subordinate clause or an identified complement , then finite and infinitival clauses may be freely extraposed.