Improving the quality of life for blacks and other nonwhites outside the work environment in such areas as housing, transportation, school, recreation, and health facilities. How do strong ethnic identities on the continent affect government? It gets to the heart of the politics of this part of the world, tackling questions such as: How is modern Africa still influenced by its colonial past? In this episode, host Peter Krogh is joined by Chester Crocker, Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, and Howard Wolpe, Chairman of the House Subcommittee on Africa, to discuss the state of affairs in Southern Africa and the efficacy of American policy toward the region. Yet, Pretoria was never able to achieve its goal of integrating itself fully into the economies or security alliances of the West. The result is a textbook that identifies the essential features of African politics, allowing students to grasp the recurring political patterns that have dominated this continent since independence. During the divestment debates in the Michigan state legislature, a former Ford employee in the Public Relations department published an open letter accusing auto company executives of working closely with South African lobbyists and diplomats to implement the Sullivan code in the late 1970s. Dow Chemical not only declined but also threatened to curtail its donations to Michigan State, leading each side to accuse the other of blackmail.
Interests and Apartheid South Africa. By the end of the year, more than one hundred American firms had signed on to the agreement, a total that had doubled by the mid-1980s. Presumably this plan would bring independence to Namibia and end the Cuban problem in Angola, while allowing the U. In South Africa, a racist regime ruled through policies of discrimination and separation. Critics, however, argued that this plan did not do enough to actively oppose the apartheid system, and maintained that constructive engagement would do little but establish closer relations with a racist regime. This expanded, fully revised and updated edition remains the ideal gateway for students seeking to make sense of the dynamic and diverse political systems that are a feature of this fascinating part of the world. Nonsegregation of the races in all eating, comfort, and work facilities.
Nixon did support the U. Foreign Policy Towards Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1994: Conflict of Interests Palgrave-Macmillan, 2008. Liberal religious organizations such as the National Council on Churches, which had been speaking out against apartheid since the mid-1960s, also pressed corporations to withdraw and passed some of the earliest divestment resolutions. The economic benefits of maintaining good relations with South Africa similarly pushed U. Pretoria played on these concerns, attempting to make itself an indispensable partner in the primary U. Different interests were pulling in different directions.
Even though the South African government expressed its approval of the measure, around half of U. The 1980s were a turbulent time period for much of Southern Africa. The third edition of An Introduction to African Politics continues to be the ideal textbook for those new to the study of this fascinating continent. On the other side of the southern region, Zimbabwe and Mozambique's opposition to apartheid was met with increasingly overt attempts at destabilization and economic punishment by South Africa's government. Hostetter, Movement Matters: American Antiapartheid Activism and the Rise of Multicultural Politics New York: Routledge, 2006. . How does African democracy differ from democracy in the West? Sources for this page: Individual document citations are at the full document links and are all from the Perry Bullard Papers, Bentley Historical Library, University of Michigan.
Sullivan Principles with Additional Guidelines The Sullivan Principles contained six provisions: 1. The Nixon administration praised the South African government as a staunchly anticommunist force for stability on the subcontinent and combined the formal U. William Minter, Gail Hovey, and Charles Cobb, Jr. Equal pay for all employees doing equal or comparable work for the same period of time. Alex Thomson is a Principal Lecturer in Politics at Coventry University. Leon Sullivan The Sullivan Principles provided American corporations with a blueprint for maintaining their presence in South Africa and resisting the divestment movement by pledging equal treatment of nonwhite employees and other programs to improve their living conditions.
By the late 1970s, around 350 U. Initiation of and development of training programs that will prepare, in substantial numbers, blacks and other nonwhites for supervisory, administrative, clerical, and technical jobs. Survey of current business 1980. Foreign Policy Towards Apartheid South Africa, 1948—1994. If Washington is really interested in contributing to the development of a just society in South Africa, it would discourage investment.
The Regents of the University of Michigan took a different path in the late 1970s, embracing the Sullivan Principles as the measure of responsible corporate investing and setting up an a showdown with anti-apartheid divestment activists on campus. Why has the military been so influential? The Reverend Leon Sullivan, a civil rights leader from Philadelphia and a board member of General Motors, proposed the corporate code of conduct and argued that economic development benefited nonwhite workers, in apartheid South Africa as in American inner cities. Increasing the number of blacks and other nonwhites in management and supervisory positions. Francis Njubi Nesbitt, Race for Sanctions: African Americans against Apartheid, 1946-1994 Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004. In 1977, in a preemptive move against the threat of economic sanctions and divestment resolutions, twelve of the largest U. General Motors and Ford both refused and instead emphasized their commitment to the reform of apartheid through the Sullivan Principles. Why do African states have such difficulty managing their economies? Returns on investment are calculated by investment income as a percentage of the total direct investment.
Foreign Policy Towards Apartheid South Africa, 1948-1994 New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008 , 102-105. Equal and fair employment practices for all employees. . . . . .
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